Italian was also one of the many recognised languages in the Austro-Hungarian Empire. This conquest propelled the unification of Italy some decades after and pushed the Italian language into a lingua franca used not only among clerks, nobility, and functionaries in the Italian courts but also by the bourgeoisie. John Milton , for instance, wrote some of his early poetry in Italian. In particular, among the Romance languages, Italian is the closest to Latin in terms of vocabulary. The Italian language was able to spread even more with the help of Luther and the invention of the printing press by Johannes Gutenberg. However, Romance vernacular as language spoken in the Appenine peninsula has a longer history. The printing press facilitated the spread of Italian because it was able to rapidly produce texts, such as the Bible, and cut the costs of books which allowed for more people to have access to the translated Bible and new pieces of literature.
It was the norm for all educated gentlemen to make the Grand Tour , visiting Italy to see its great historical monuments and works of art. One study analyzing the degree of differentiation of Romance languages in comparison to Latin comparing phonology , inflection , discourse , syntax , vocabulary , and intonation estimated that among the languages analyzed the distance between Italian and Latin is only higher than that between Sardinian and Latin. In particular, among the Romance languages, Italian is the closest to Latin in terms of vocabulary. Italian diaspora From the late nineteenth to the mid-twentieth century, thousands of Italians settled in Argentina, Uruguay, southern Brazil, and Venezuela, where they formed a physical and cultural presence. This is due to the strong historical ties between Italy and Albania but also the Albanian communities in Italy, and the 19, Italians living in Albania. Dante's epic poems, known collectively as the Commedia , to which another Tuscan poet Giovanni Boccaccio later affixed the title Divina, were read throughout the peninsula and his written dialect became the "canonical standard" that all educated Italians could understand. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. It thus became expected to learn at least some Italian. During this time, long-existing beliefs stemming from the teachings of the Roman Catholic Church began to be understood from new a perspectives as humanists —individuals who placed emphasis on the human body and its full potential—began to shift focus from the church to human beings themselves. In Costa Rica , Central America , Italian is one of the most important immigration community languages, after English. In addition to the widespread exposure gained through literature, the Florentine dialect also gained prestige due to the political and cultural significance of Florence at the time and the fact that it was linguistically an intermediate between the northern and the southern Italian dialects. Those dialects now have considerable variety. During that period, Italy held artistic sway over the rest of Europe. In England, while the classical languages Latin and Greek were the first to be learned, Italian became the second most common modern language after French, a position it held until the late eighteenth century when it tended to be replaced by German. This discussion, known as questione della lingua i. Italian is still understood by some elderly and other people. After the invention of the printing press in the fifteen century, the number of printing presses in Italy grew rapidly and by the year reached a total of 56, the biggest number of printing presses in all of Europe. The rediscovery of Dante's De vulgari eloquentia and a renewed interest in linguistics in the 16th century, sparked a debate that raged throughout Italy concerning the criteria that should govern the establishment of a modern Italian literary and spoken language. The percent change from — was a negative Renaissance scholars divided into three main factions: Italian loanwords continue to be used in most languages in matters of art and music especially classical music including opera , in the design and fashion industries, in some sports like football  and especially, in culinary terms. As in most Romance languages, stress is distinctive. The Italian language was able to spread even more with the help of Luther and the invention of the printing press by Johannes Gutenberg. Demographics by country[ edit ]. The most characteristic differences, for instance, between Roman Italian and Milanese Italian are the gemination of initial consonants and the pronunciation of stressed "e", and of "s" in some cases:
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