It transferred sovereignty from the Emperor to the people in an attempt to depoliticize the Throne and reduce it to the status of a state symbol. However, Ladejinsky has stated that the real architect of reform was Hiro Wada , former Japanese Minister of Agriculture. The new constitution drafted by Americans allowed access and control over the Japanese military through MacArthur and the Allied occupation on Japan. In , the Japan Self-Defense Forces were founded as a full-scale military in all but name. To avoid breaking the constitutional prohibition on military force, they were officially founded as an extension to the police force.
Prime Ministers Junichiro Koizumi and Shinzo Abe , among others, have tried to repeal or amend the clause. The JSDF slowly grew to considerable strength, and Japan now has the eighth largest military budget in the world. A subcommittee including two women, Beate Sirota Gordon  and economist Eleanor Hadley , was enlisted and assigned to writing the section of the constitution devoted to civil rights and women's rights in Japan. This clause was not imposed by the Allies: Educational reform in occupied Japan Before and during the war, Japanese education was based on the German system, with " Gymnasien " selective grammar schools and universities to train students after primary school. Economic deconcentration, for example, was left uncompleted as GHQ responded to new imperatives. However, Ladejinsky has stated that the real architect of reform was Hiro Wada , former Japanese Minister of Agriculture. Article 14 states, in part: According to Article 1 of the Act, the purpose of the act is to "elevate the status of workers by promoting their being on equal standing with the employer". These additions to the constitution were vital to women's rights in Japan. According to Article 1 of the Act, its goal is to ensure that "Working conditions shall be those which should meet the needs of workers who live lives worthy of human beings. Trade Union Act[ edit ] In the Diet passed Japan's first ever trade union law protecting the rights of workers to form or join a union, to organize, and take industrial action. During the Korean War, US forces largely withdrew from Japan to redeploy to South Korea, leaving the country almost totally defenseless. Marriage shall be based only on the mutual consent of both sexes and it shall be maintained through mutual cooperation with the equal rights of husband and wife as a basis. In , the Japan Self-Defense Forces were founded as a full-scale military in all but name. Bill of Rights , New Deal social legislation, the liberal constitutions of several European states and even the Soviet Union It appears to have been the brainchild of Kosaku Teramoto, a former member of the Thought Police , who had become the head of the Labor Standards section of the Welfare Ministry. To avoid breaking the constitutional prohibition on military force, they were officially founded as an extension to the police force. They played an integral role, drafting the language regarding legal equality between men and women in Japan,  including Articles 14 and 24 on Equal Rights and Women's Civil Rights. With the defeat of the traditionalist government, the occupation authorities, on the order of general Douglas MacArthur , began drafting a new constitution for Japan in February Disarmament[ edit ] Japan's postwar constitution , adopted under Allied supervision, included a "Peace Clause", Article 9 , which renounced war and banned Japan from maintaining any armed forces. By , three million peasants had acquired land, dismantling a power structure that the landlords had long dominated. There had been pre-war attempts to do so, but none that were successfully passed until the Allied occupation. The Constitution also enfranchised women, guaranteed fundamental human rights, strengthened the powers of Parliament and the Cabinet, and decentralized the police and local government. On April 10, , an election with American authorities encouraged business practices and industrial policies that have since become sources of contention between Japan and its major trade partners, notably the United States. Included in the revised charter was the famous 'no war', 'no arms' Article Nine, which outlawed belligerency as an instrument of state policy and the maintenance of a standing army.
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