It is expected that research using these intermediate end points will be used to clarify knowledge gaps identified in the evidence review for these Guidelines; the clinical importance of these new studies in adults and children remains to be fully established. The reproducibility of data from a food frequency questionnaire among low-income Latina mothers and their children. Validity and reproducibility of a food frequency interview in a multi-cultural epidemiologic study. The best evidence for answering these questions derives from randomized trials showing event reduction in adults, randomized trials in children showing risk reduction with change in subclinical measures of atherosclerosis or target organ damage and patient safety, genetic studies that provide a model for the adverse effects of sustained exposure to risk, and long-term observational studies demonstrating the benefit of maintenance of low risk on health and all-cause mortality. Management algorithms provide staged care recommendations for risk reduction within the pediatric care setting and identify risk factor levels requiring referral to a specialist. Many scenarios could arise in which the ethics of such a trial could be questioned, including undue exposure to risk in one of the trial arms, the discovery of novel treatments of improved efficacy during the conduct of the trial, environmental changes or shifts in priorities of the funding entity that complicate its completion, and the potential withholding of effective therapy to a generation of youths with identified risk who do not receive treatment. The lifetime risk of disease associated with high risk in childhood may identify candidates for more aggressive intervention.
Use of a multicultural food-frequency questionnaire with pregnant and lactating women. An evaluation of a food frequency questionnaire for assessing dietary intake of specific carotenoids and vitamin E among low-income black women. Validity and reproducibility of a food frequency interview in a multi-cultural epidemiologic study. That does not diminish the critical importance of public health measures to CVD prevention. Findings were related to atherosclerosis measured at autopsy after accidental death, and strong correlations were shown between the presence and intensity of risk factors and the extent and severity of atherosclerosis. Patients and families expect physicians, nurses, dietitians, and other health care providers and counselors to provide accurate health information. For adults, the primary use of these technologies has been in event prediction; that is, whether the presence of one of these markers increases the likelihood of a future CV event beyond that expected from conventional risk factor assessment. Low validity of a seven-item fruit and vegetable food frequency questionnaire among third-grade students. These recommendations for providers of health care to children will be most effective when complemented by a broader public health strategy, as discussed in Section XVI. These are displayed as prevalence maps of fatty streaks and raised lesions, with color intensity reflecting the density and grade of the lesions. Many scenarios could arise in which the ethics of such a trial could be questioned, including undue exposure to risk in one of the trial arms, the discovery of novel treatments of improved efficacy during the conduct of the trial, environmental changes or shifts in priorities of the funding entity that complicate its completion, and the potential withholding of effective therapy to a generation of youths with identified risk who do not receive treatment. Coronary disease among United States soldiers killed in action in Korea. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ;20 8: Prevention of atherosclerosis development receives greater emphasis in children and young adults. To a greater or lesser extent, risk factors track from childhood to adulthood. Pathomorphometrical characteristics of atherosclerosis in youth. Atherosclerosis Maps of the Right Coronary Artery [[nid: Coronary artery disease in combat casualties in Vietnam. Associations of coronary heart disease risk factors with the intermediate lesion of atherosclerosis in youth. Of course, this approach is as unachievable as it is attractive. Comparison of energy intake by semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire with total energy expenditure by the doubly labeled water method in young children. Risk factors for the development of atherosclerosis can be identified in childhood. N Engl J Med ; Pediatric care providers—pediatricians, family practitioners, nurses and nurse practitioners, physician assistants, and registered dietitians—are ideally positioned to reinforce these CV health behaviors as part of routine care. Some studies encompass the entire lifespan e. These issues are captured in the critical questions related to intervention see I.
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